Nepal has its own history. With the passing of every new century, Nepal has witnessed many rulers and dynasties. All those rulers and dynasties played contributing roles in molding Nepal into present Modern Nepal. From 9th century BC to 1st century AD, Kirat Dynasty ruled over Nepal. Yalambar was the first of a line of 28 Kirati kings to tule the Kathmandu valley. After Kirats, Lichchhavi Dynasty took over the regime from 3rd Century to 13th Century which was the followed by Thakuri and Malla and then Shah Kings. In 12th Century, early Malla rule started with Ari Malla and his kingdom expanded widely over the next two centuries into Terai and Western Tibet. Later Malla dynasty of the Kathmandu Valley was later commenced by Jayasthiti Malla who also started the Caste System in Nepal. Jayasthiti Malla started to reign at the end of 14th century and he has made various eminent social and economic reforms like 'Sanskritization' of the valley people. Jayasthiti Malla also started new methods land measurement and allocation and many other reforms.
With the regime of King Prithvi Narayan Shah, we move into the modern period of the History of Nepal. King Prithvi Narayan was the 9th descendent of Dravya Shah who was the founder of Gorkha state. King Prithvi Narayan Shah started unification process and was successful in bringing together the diverse religious and ethnic groups under one nationality. However, later on, as Nepalese had differences of opinion with the East India Company regarding the ownership of the land strip of Western Terai; it led conflict and then the war with British Government. During this war, Nepal inflicted heavy losses to the British Army but British proved too strong due to their superior weapons and the large number of Army. In 1816, the Treaty of Sugauli was signed with British Government ultimately. In 1846, The Kot Massacre led by Jang Bahadur Rana back-seated the power of Monarchy and Made Rana Regime more powerful for 103 subsequent years. King Tribhuvan in 1950 restored monarchy in the country with the support of India and thereafter a coalition government comprising the Nepali Congress Party and Ranas was installed with the promise of free elections in 1952.
King Mahendra (son of King Tribhuvan) tactically established Panchayat System ('Five Councils System') in 1960 by engineering a coup and declaring a new constitution imprisoning all the leaders of the then government and enforcing a ban on all political parties. However, People's Movement of 1990 opened up a new chapter for a decade of democracy in Nepal which led to constitutional monarchy with multiparty democracy. But the bitter reality was, democracy came with heavy price leading to incompetent political leaders, corruption and downfall of national economy, Maoist Insurgency and political conflict among other parties and so on. The Royal Massacre in 2001 left the whole world in complete shock as King Birendra and his whole family as assassinated. After that, King Gyanendra was crowned the King of Nepal after the assassination of his brother King Birendra.
With People's Movement started with the advent of 2006, major political parties committed to reform their past mistakes and Maoist rebels came together with the support from Nepalese people and King Gyanendra was compelled to hand over the political power to Nepalese people and Democracy was again restored in Nepal. In December 24, 2007, Nepal was declared Federal Republic by seven parties including Maoist and ruling party. Maoists secured a simple majority in the election held on 10th April, 2008. The newly elected Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic in 2008 May 28.
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